CNC machine tool design

All CNC machine tools are designed to fulfill three prime objectives:

  1. Maintain accuracy.
  2. Maintain repeatability.
  3. Achieve and maintain reliability.

It is a common misconception that CNC machine tools are designed solely to reduce cycle times. While they invariably do, it is more important that consistent quality of output is maintained and that downtime is kept to a minimum.

CNC machine tools enjoy considerable additions and improvements in four main design areas:

  1. Structural details.
  2. Mechanical details.
  3. Control system facilities.
  4. Auxiliary facilities.

As with maximum matters, value concerns will often force compromise. CNC device equipment are not an exception. Discussion on the above points should be balanced with the aid of economic constraints which could have an effect on design decisions.

TCarbide tools can be found in three basic types. Reliable carbide tools are made from a solid piece of carbide. Brazed carbide tools use a carbide cutting tip brazed on a steel shank.

The Future

The future of CNC machines is exploding. One idea under development is a spider-like machine whose spindle is suspended by six telescoping ballscrew struts. The motions of the spindle are controlled by a sophisticated computer performing millions of calculations to assure proper part contour. Advancement in computers and artificial intelligence will make CNC machines of the future faster and easier to operate. This will not come cheaply, and the price of sophisticated CNC machines will be beyond the reach of many companies. It will, how-ever, reduce the prices of the basic CNC machines performing the original three-axis movements.

AndIn the selection of cutting tools, the type of operation and hand of the cutting must always be taken into consideration.